Scriptie onderwerpen

Alle medewerkers doen onderzoek op verschillende gebieden. Het is mogelijk om op deze gebieden je scriptie te schrijven of stage te lopen.

De procedure en de onderwerpen voor de MSc Thesis S&O staan in de e-Studiegids (bijv. Thesis Proposal) en worden aan ingeschreven Masterstudenten verstuurd.


Scriptieonderwerpen Sociale en Organisatiepsychologie en ECP september 2013

S1 - Edwin Boezeman (3 duo’s)    

  • Volunteer management (2 duo’s)   Volunteers are workers who work in an organizational context, unpaid and without formal obligation, for the benefit of (often unknown) others and/or society. These unpaid workers keep viable and sustain the activities of charities, faith-based organizations, political parties and many other types of non-profit organizations who are active in, and contribute positively to, society and local communities (Pearce, 1993). However, volunteer work is fundamentally different from paid work (e.g., Boezeman & Ellemers, 2009), in voluntary organizations reward structures other than structures that operate to motivate and retain paid workers (e.g., pay, promotion) are used to promote the willingness to work for the organization. In this research project, we will develop new insights on immaterial reward systems and volunteer management to address a specific organizational issue of the non-profit (volunteer) organization (e.g., How to lead volunteers (leadership)?, How to recruit volunteers (recruitment)?, How to motivate volunteer workers in their jobs (work motivation)?, How to improve cooperation between paid workers and volunteers (conflict/cooperation),  How to prevent work overload among informal care givers (“mantelzorgers”) etc.).  
  • A study among managers: Social identity threat as a source of disrespect and abusive leadership behavior (1 duo)   In organizations, managers and subordinates cooperate in work groups to achieve organizational objectives. Managers are the representatives of the organization and they have high status and power (e.g., power to reward and sanction) within the organization, hence they are central to the job attitudes and work behaviors of their subordinates. Subordinates for instance experience job dissatisfaction when they are treated as an out-group member by their manager, whereas workers who receive treatment as an in-group member might perceive their organization as a good place to work (e.g., Dulebohn et al., 2012). However, managers are dependent upon their subordinates for achieving organizational objectives, thus in organizations subordinates have value for managers (and thus power). Yet, as compared to the literature that highlights how leadership behavior affects the job attitudes and work behaviors of employees, not much is known about how workers’ evaluations and attitudes concerning their manager affect the cognitions and leadership behaviors of managers. Research (Sleebos, Ellemers & De Gilder, 2006) showed that work group members increase their work efforts to repair their intra-group status when they receive disrespect from their peer group members. Would managers and supervisors react in the same way when their subordinates make clear that they disrespect the social identity of the manager?, or would they emphasize their high status within the organization by demonstrating abusive leadership behavior to show “who’s boss” to repair their intra-group status?     
S2 -Wim van Breukelen(1 student S&O)  
  • Applicants for these proposals should be fluent in Dutch and should be prepared to write management summaries and internship reports in Dutch.  The thesis should be written in English.   Het Nieuwe Werken   Het Nieuwe Werken wordt vaak gepresenteerd als een revolutionair nieuwe manier van werken, die allerlei voordelen zou hebben voor zowel werkgever als werknemer. In plaats van de traditionele vorm van werken, waarbij werknemers opereren op en vanuit een vaste locatie, is er bij Het Nieuwe Werken sprake van flexibele werkplekken, zowel op kantoor als op andere plaatsen, waar mensen kunnen (samen)werken, daarbij ondersteund door digitale hulpmiddelen en communicatiemiddelen (ICT). Het Nieuwe Werken zou resulteren in betere arbeidsprestaties en meer plezier in het werk bij werknemers, terwijl er voor organisaties onder meer voordelen zouden zitten in een efficiënter gebruik van faciliteiten en middelen.   De realiteit is waarschijnlijk meer genuanceerd: Het Nieuwe Werken (HNW) heeft zeker mogelijkheden om de effectiviteit en efficiëntie van werknemers en organisaties te verbeteren, maar kan lang niet in alle arbeidssituaties worden toegepast. Bovendien brengt het ook risico’s met zich mee. Voorbeelden hiervan zijn een minder ideale balans tussen werk en privé bij werknemers,  minder zicht bij leidinggevenden op de activiteiten en taakuitvoering van werknemers, en onzekerheid bij werknemers die een grote behoefte hebben aan structuur in hun werk. Het zal duidelijk zijn dat het succes van HNW sterk afhankelijk is van het verantwoordelijkheidsbesef van medewerkers, van het vertrouwen dat leidinggevenden hebben in hun medewerkers, en van de specifieke wijze waarop het is ingevuld.   Veel systematisch onderzoek naar de aard en de effecten van HNW is er nog niet gedaan. Bovendien is in onderzoek lang niet altijd duidelijk welke aspecten van HNW precies aanwezig zijn in het werk van een bepaalde groep werknemers. Daarom is de afgelopen jaren een checklist ontwikkeld waarmee in kaart kan worden gebracht in hoeverre de verschillende aspecten van HNW in het werk van werknemers (zoals administratief personeel, productiemedewerkers, verkoopadviseurs etc.) aanwezig zijn.  Deze checklist wordt vervolgens als uitgangspunt genomen om te onderzoeken wat precies de effecten zijn van HNW, zowel voor de medewerkers als voor de organisatie. Hierbij kan men denken aan de autonomie en de werkdruk van de medewerker, aan de samenwerking tussen medewerkers en aan uitkomsten zoals arbeidsvoldoening en bevlogenheid. 
S3 - Belle Derks (2 duo’s)  
  • The queen bee phenomenon: Is it typical for women or not? (1 duo SOP)   Although the number of women in the workplace has increased a lot in the last decades, women all over the world still experience gender discrimination, receive lower payment than their male counterparts and are less likely to reach higher management positions in organizations. It is often assumed that sexist behavior in work settings mostly comes from men. However, recent research suggests that women in male-dominated settings can also play a negative role in the advancement of their female colleagues. Although it is often expected from women that, when they advance in the organization, they work to improve the position of other women, several studies have shown that some women turn into ‘Queen Bees’ on their way to the top. Queen bees are women who improve their career success in masculine organizational cultures by emphasizing how they differ from other women and focusing on their masculine characteristics. Moreover, queen bees have been found to oppose the women’s movement and to express very gender-stereotypical perceptions of other women in the workplace. In a previous field study we showed that queen bee behavior is found most among women who do not feel strongly identified with other women and who work in a highly masculine organization that discriminates against women (Derks, Ellemers, Van Laar, & De Groot, in press). Moreover, in an experimental field study among police women, we found that simply reminding low gender identified women of gender bias in the police force increased their queen bee behavior (Derks, Van Laar, Ellemers & De Groot, 2011). This seem to indicate that the queen bee phenomenon is not a typically feminine response, but should also occur among other minority groups. Indeed, in a first field experiment among Hindustani employees we found evidence for an ‘acting Dutch’ response among Hindustani who felt low ethnic identification and who were reminded of ethnic bias at work. The student working on this project will examine this response in a different minority group (for example among another ethnic minority group, or among gay employees).    
  • Gendered advertising: Does it work? (1 duo SOP or ECP)   Over the past years, there seems to be a rise in advertisements that feature some form of gender stereotypes, be it subtle jokes about how women want a walk-in closet, while men want a walk-in beer fridge (as in a Heineken advertisement), or the blatant sexual advertisements of Suit Supply that created quite a stir. Although these advertisements are often perceived quite positively, it’s unclear how these advertisements affect consumers’ implicit evaluation of the product, and how gender of the perceiver affects these evaluations. Although both men and women may find these commercials funny, is it possible that on an implicit level gendered advertisements serve to alienate the gender group that is made fun of? For example, if the commercial targets women by making fun of men, does that affect women’s evaluation of the product positively and men’s evaluation negatively? And are people aware of the connection between how much they like gendered advertising, and whether they will actually buy a product? Or does gendered advertising do more harm than good? These questions will be examined in a lab experiment in which we examine the effect of newly designed fake advertisements on explicit and implicit ratings of product evaluation.  
S4 - Eric van Dijk (2 duo’s, SOP or ECP)  
  • Why and when do we (dis)trust others? (2 duo’s)   Trust can be defined as the willingness to make yourself vulnerable to the actions of others. Trust in others is essential in economic contexts like buying (do you trust that the other will deliver or pay? That the product is as good as the add says?) and bargaining (do you trust your opponent?). To study people’s willingness to trust others, research in the field of behavioral economics often applies the trust game (TG). In the TG there are two players who can share a certain amount of money. The first player (trustor) has the possibility to divide a sum of money equally or to give it all to the second player (trustee). If the first player decides to share the money, both players get their equal share and the game ends. However, if the first player gives all the money to the second player the total amount of money is tripled. Next, the second player has the possibility to reciprocate trust and share the increased amount of money with first player, or to exploit trust by keeping all the money. People’s willingness to let player 2 decide is then taken as a measure of trust. This experimental setting can be used to study the psychology of trust. For example, one might study whether people are as trusting (and trustworthy) when it comes to paying (negative outcomes) as when it comes to earning (positive outcomes). The answer to such a simple question can easily be found by conducting a lab experiment, and that is what we’ll do.
S5 - Wilco van Dijk (1 or more duo’s)  
  • Schadenfreude: Understanding pleasure at the misfortunes of others   This project will be about that joyful feeling you may experience when someone else suffers a mishap, a setback, a downfall, a calamity, an adversity or any other type of misfortune. The German language has coined the word Schadenfreude for this pleasure at the misfortunes of other people. In this project we will investigate the underlying motives for schadenfreude, that is, why people sometimes enjoy the misfortunes of others.  
S6 - Lotte van Dillen (1 duo)  
  • Thesis & Internship @ PublicPasses   Bicycle underpasses: how to reduce anxieties at night ?      Bicycle-underpasses generate feelings of anxiety, especially at night. And among women more than among men. To a large extent, this is a matter of subjective safety (as distinct from objective safety: negative-event frequency). As such feelings can be inhibited by positive and active distraction (van Dillen & Koole, 2007) there should be ways of attention-capture that make underpasses less of an obstacle to health and pleasure of the wider bicycle-infrastructure use. The expressly spatial and interactive technique PleasantPass®, developed by Prof. Stallen and his team (PUBLICPASSES), may be the way: at the entrance of the underpass bicyclists read a brief but interesting question, followed by a corresponding image (and/or sounds) halfway the underpass, and by a brief answer to the question on display when leaving the underpass. Negative affect may become inhibited even stronger by additional use of ICT (see ; search <pleasantpass>). Results of a first (2012) simulation experiment in the lab show significant stress reduction among women when exposed to this socio-technique. By the present study we wish to (replicate and) investigate effects more ‘on the spot’ by using the recently opened and first built  PleasantPass® at the N329 (see , Oss).
    Candidates (max. 2) must have:  good knowledge of experimental design and statistics. They preferably go for a future in applied science. Candidates are offered: frequent opportunities of exchange of scientific ideas both from theoretical and practical sides. Research activity may be combined with an internship at PUBLICPASSES (Arnhem), depending upon the candidate’s level of interest in, and capabilities regarding further development of the PleasantPass®  concept in response to received market requests. Internship can only start after data for a master-thesis have been collected and analyzed.   Applications should be sent by e-mail to For more information, see the website:   
S7 - Naomi Ellemers (2 duo’s)  
  • What do we mean when we talk about power? (1 duo)   Over the years, many studies have been performed to understand the consequences of having (versus not having) power. However, different conceptualizations of power are possible, and the methods used to examine this are quite diverse. Accordingly, it is not always easy to combine different findings into a cumulative understanding of social power as an important phenomenon. Recently, our research group has started to differentiate between two specific conceptualizations of power: power as control over other people’s outcomes, vs. power as responsibility for other people’s outcomes. This distinction helps understand some of the inconsistencies in research findings on the effects of power. The thesis project will build on this initial work. The aim is to conduct an empirical study of the research literature on social power. After the specific research question is formulated, the empirical research will consist of collecting empirical studies on power and coding these in terms of study characteristics (e.g., type of manipulation, type of measure), to build a data base that can be statistically analysed as a way to draw conclusions about current understandings of and insights about social power.   Reading suggestions Keltner, D., Gruenfeld, D.H., & Anderson, C. (2003). Power, approach, and inhibition. Psychological Review, 110, 265-284. Sassenberg, K., Ellemers, N., Scheepers, D., & Scholl, A. (in press). “Power corrupts” revisited: The role of construal of power as opportunity or responsibility. In: J.-W. van Prooijen & P. A. M. van Lange (Eds.) Power, politics, and paranoia: Why people are suspicious about their leaders. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Sassenberg, K., Ellemers, N, & Scheepers, D. (2012). . Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 550-555.    
  • Ethics climates in the banking sector (1 duo, SOP or ECP)   The current financial and economic crisis has revealed how dependent we all are on decisions that are made in the banking sector. Many attempts have been made to explain how it was possible that people working in this sector prioritized their personal and organizational financial profits above customer interests, and made irresponsibly risky investment decisions, with the result of jeopardizing the stability of the entire political and financial system. To the extent that such explanations invoke psychological insights, these tend to focus on the personality of individual bankers as being neurotic, autistic, or immoral. In our research program, we take a different approach, as we focus on specific characteristics of the organizational culture and ethics climate in the banking sector as organizational features that elicit and reward irresponsible financial decision making. The thesis will be part of our broader efforts to identify and understand the impact of organizational ethics climates on financial decision making in the banking sector. The aim is to conduct an empirical study of the organizational characteristics and features that characterize and define the way ethical implications of financial decisions are being treated in different banks. After the specific research question is formulated, the empirical research will consist of collecting data about specific organizational features and practices that characterize different organizational cultures and are relevant to the research question. The aim is to build a data base of organizational characteristics and outcomes that can be statistically analysed as a way to draw conclusions about the relation between different ethics climates in banks and the financial decisions they make.   Reading suggestions Joris Luyendijk – The Joris Luyendijk banking blog: Going native in the world of finance. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/joris-luyendijk-banking-blog Ellemers, N. (2003). Identity, culture, and change in organizations: A social identity analysis and three illustrative cases. In: Haslam, A., Van Knippenberg, D., Platow, M., & Ellemers, N. Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice (191-204). Psychology Press. Ellemers, N., Pagliaro, S., & Barreto, M. (2013).  Morality and behavioural regulation in groups: A social identity approach. European Review of Social Psychology. Schneider, B., Erhart, M.G., & Macey, W.J. (2013). Organizational climate and culture.  Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 361-388.
S8 - Fieke Harinck (3 duo’s)    
  • Apologies, gratitude and compliments (1 duo)   ‘Sorry’ sometimes seems to be the hardest word, but what about ‘thank you’ or ‘good job!’?. The effects of an apology, gratitude or compliments can be huge, especially in conflict and negotiations. In this project we are going to investigate the effects of apologies, gratitude or compliments in negotiations. We will conduct a lab study. This research is part of an international collaboration with prof. Jehn from Melbourne Business School.    
  • Resources, values, conflicts and interventions (1 duo)   In this project we are looking for interventions that help people to solve their personal differences. You will participate in a negotiation study, in which people are in conflict about interests or values. There will be two interventions, one for interests and one for values. We hope to gain insight in how different types of conflicts can be resolved, or how conflict escalation can be avoided. Also this research is part of a larger, international, project with prof. Druckman about interventions in conflict.    
  • Loss aversion and risky decision making; the effects of culture, power and gender (1 duo)   People are loss averse; they feel worse about losing a certain amount of money than they feel good about gaining an equal amount of money. For example, people feel worse about losing 10 euro's than they feel good about gaining 10 euros. In prospect theory, they state that losses loom larger than gains. However, a few years ago, we have established the phenomenon of reversed loss aversion; for very small amounts of money, people are happier gaining 25 cents than they are sad when losing 25 cents (Harinck et al, 2007).   In this project, we will take a closer look at the psychological processes underlying loss aversion and reversed loss aversion. We will apply the concepts of threat and challenge to bets in which small amounts of money or large amounts of money are at stake. Recently, we found interesting intercultural effects and interesting gender-effects concerning loss aversion and risky decision making, and the upcoming thesis-projects are focused on these new findings.   There are many studies to be done, including field studies and experimental lab studies.       
S9 - Hanneke Hendriks(2 duo’s, ECP or SOP)  
  • Online and offline communication about behaviors, advertisements, or products: Differences and similarities in persuasion   Conversations about behaviors can strongly influence attitudes and intentions towards these behaviors. For instance, talking about alcohol consumption has been shown to increase drinking behaviors. In marketing contexts it has been shown that talking about a product in a positive way can increase product sales, whereas complaining about a product can decrease liking towards the product and buying intentions. Many of these studies have been conducted in offline face-to-face settings. However, people generally spend a lot of time on the Internet, and a large part of this time online is spent socializing with others (e.g., Facebook). Whether online discussions have the same persuasive impact as offline conversations is not yet clear. Potentially, due to lower feelings of trust, a lack of nonverbal cues, and greater perceptions of anonymity in online communication settings, this results in a weaker influence of online interpersonal discussions as compared to offline discussions. This project aims to explore the differences and similarities between offline and online communication in terms of subsequent persuasion outcomes. An additional aim of this project can be to investigate the underlying processes that account for differences and similarities between these two different ways of communicating.    
S10 - Rosabelle Illes (1 duo)    
  • Value conflicts: justice and interventions   The literature identifies two types of conflicts, namely, interest conflicts and value conflicts. Interest conflicts concern disagreements about the allocation of scarce resources such as time and money. Value conflicts occur when parties disagree on a given topic due to diverging values (e.g. justice, religion). Previous research has primarily identified techniques to intervene in interest conflicts (e.g. Harvard method). However, differences in core values, which are often embedded in people’s socio-cultural identities, are also common sources of conflict. Recent data collected through in-depth interviews with professional mediators confirms a lack of information about value conflicts and the unavailability of techniques specifically geared at resolving value conflicts.   In this project, we will investigate the mechanisms involved in the reconciliation of value conflicts with the aim of identifying effective interventions that can be adopted by professional mediators.      
S11 - Marina Kouzakova (2 duo’s)    
  • The hidden gems to resolve an interpersonal moral conflict   Moral conflicts are abundantly present in our social lives and they are notoriously hard to ‘switch off’. For instance, when you disagree with someone on a more tangible issue, such as money, property, or amount of time (that is what we generally call resource conflicts), you may resolve your conflict by resorting to compromises and trade-offs. However, when your friends, colleagues, customers, business partners or loved ones hold opposing values or opposing moral judgments about your joint course of actions, resolution of your conflict may be incredible difficult to achieve because both parties refuse to yield to something they feel is simply wrong to do. Friendships, relationships and even marriages can perish as a result of unresolved moral conflicts. Often moral conflicts are mixed with resource conflicts (think of a conflict about inheritance where a conflict about what’s fair and right underlies the division of tangible goods). The problem of moral conflict resolution becomes even clearer on a scale of corporate business, (inter)national politics and intercultural groups.   In this project we are looking for a hidden button to effectively resolve or diminish conflicts that are grounded in opposing values and moral judgments. What better way to persuade a person than by doing something of which that person is not even aware of? Nonverbal behavior such as (non)verbal mimicry, power poses, interpersonal distance etc. has proved to be a subtle, but an effective tool in achieving such goal.    In this project we will test the applicability of these and other nonverbal behaviors to make a moral value conflict ‘switch off’ or, at least, fade away… Your own brilliant input on persuasion methods will certainly be considered.   The idea is to put nonverbal influence techniques in an experimental design and test them in both laboratory and field studies.  
S12 - Erik de Kwaadsteniet (3 duo’s, SOP or ECP)  
  • The effects of (uncertain) financial sanctions in social dilemmas (1 duo)   Many researchers have focused on the question as to how people can be stimulated to cooperate. In other words, how can people be stimulated to further the interests of the collective to which they belong instead of fulfilling their own narrow self-interest? For instance, how can people be stimulated to pay taxes, and how can tax evasion be prevented? One straight-forward solution is the use of financial sanctions. Empirical research has repeatedly demonstrated that by rewarding those who do cooperate or by punishing those who defect (e.g., by imposing a fine on tax avoiders), cooperation can indeed be increased (see e.g., Balliet, Mulder, & Van Lange, 2010). However, in the real-world it is not always so easy to distinguish cooperators from defectors, thereby hampering the administration of such sanctions. Put differently, due to the noise and uncertainty that often occurs in real-life settings (e.g., not every individual act of tax evasion can be detected), there is always a chance that defectors will get away with their non-cooperative behavior. Quite surprisingly, however, hardly any research to date has focused on the question as to how such uncertainty may undermine the positive effects of financial sanctions on cooperation. The present project will aim to answer this question. These questions will be answered using experimental methods.  
  • Reputational benefits of altruistic sanctioning in social dilemmas (1 duo)   Research on sanctions in social dilemmas has repeatedly shown that punishments and rewards can effectively promote cooperation and deter defection. Moreover, research on altruistic punishment and reward has demonstrated that people are even willing to give up their own endowments to sanction others. However, the question as to why people are prepared to altruistically sanction others is an evolutionary puzzle. One possibility is that sanctioning has reputational benefits for the sanctioner (e.g., Barclay, 2006; Kiyonari & Barclay, 2008). In the present project, we will focus on the reputational benefits of different types of altruistic sanctions. More specifically, we aim to answer the question as to whether rewarding cooperators is more beneficial to one’s reputation than punishing defectors. Moreover, we will investigate the reputational benefits of punishing and rewarding under different levels of noise (cf. Van Lange, 1998). Does altruistic sanctioning also have reputational benefits if - due to noise - there is uncertainty about whether the administered sanction is justified or not? These questions will be answered using experimental methods.  
  • Punishing the perpetrator or compensating the victim? (1 duo)   When someone (a perpetrator) has administered harm to someone else (the victim), the question often arises as to whether the perpetrator should be punished (e.g., by paying a fine) or if the victim should be financially compensated for the harm done. In this project, we will investigate whether people have a preference for perpetrator punishment or victim compensation. Furthermore, we will focus on the role of intentionality. For instance, if people know that someone was intentionally harmed, do they prefer punishment over compensation? And what if the intentionality behind the harm is unknown? These questions will be answered using experimental methods.
S13 - Colette van Laar (2 duo’s)  
  • Stopping smoking: Does using knowledge of group identity processes help? (1 duo, SOP or ECP)   While many smokers respond to anti-smoking measures by decreasing or stopping with smoking, anti-smoking measures appear ineffective in persuading a substantial group of smokers, and particularly those with lower socio-economic status, to stop smoking. In the current work we will examine how an understanding of group identity processes may help develop measures to persuade these smokers too to stop smoking. These measures will thus address not smoking as such but the ties and contacts smokers have with others around them and the role this plays in their continuation and efforts to stop smoking. The results of this work can help inform agencies and parties interested in smoking cessation to develop more effective anti-smoking measures to reach in particular these more difficult to persuade groups.    
  • Succeeding at work: Do apparently positive benevolent forms of sexism more negatively affect women’s work outcomes than more openly hostile forms? (1 duo, SOP)   Women’s participation in education and paid-work has increased substantially in past decades. At the same time, there are consistent signs that the process is not yet complete, with women confined to particular professions and job-levels. In the current project we examine the role of gender attitudes in women’s work outcomes. Specifically, in a partnership with a national magazine, we examine whether apparently positive but patronizing beliefs about women (Benevolent sexism) may do more harm to women’s attitudes and perspective on work than are more clearly negative and openly hostile beliefs about women (Hostile sexism). Benevolent sexist beliefs represent a particular type of sexism (e.g., the belief that women should be protected and taken care of by men, and the belief that women have special qualities such as a superior moral sense). Benevolent sexism is often disregarded because of its ostensibly positive qualities. We examine whether these ostensibly positive beliefs may actually have more negative effects on women’s work attitudes and perspective (e.g., self-presentation as an independent and strong employee, leadership ambition) than more clearly negative and openly hostile beliefs about women. The results of this work will provide insight into how gender attitudes in the workplace affect the way women and men present themselves, and thereby affect the success that they subsequently achieve.      
S14 -  Romy van der Lee (1 duo)    
  • Women in Top Positions   Today women still experience gender discrimination. For example in the workplace, where women in leadership and top positions are still underrepresented compared to men. Despite various attempts towards more gender equality (e.g., women’s quota, affirmative action policies), the percentage of women in top positions – in The Netherlands – is actually decreasing. This is also true in the work field of science. Female scientists are, compared to male scientists, less likely to get hired at a university, are judged to be less competent, are getting paid less, and are less successful in grant applications. The current project will examine more subtle factors that might preserve this gender inequality in the workplace, as well as their consequences. For example, the wording in vacancies. Prior research has demonstrated that words that indicate success, such as “excellence” are stereotypical male words and therefore more appealing to men and less appealing and potentially threatening to women. Do job advertisements for top positions emphasize such characteristics, and are therefore positively biased towards men? Another example is affirmative action policies described in vacancies. What are the consequences for women who apply to an organization that explicitly advertises that they “are an equal opportunity employer, and encourage women to apply”? Are women perceived less competent, because people think they are hired for their gender rather than their capabilities (e.g., “she got the job because she is a woman, not because she was the best candidate”)? In this project, we will investigate several factors and consequences of gender discrimination in the workplace, focused at women in top positions.  
S15 - Welmer Molenmaker (2 duo’s)    
  • Being r esponsible for p unish or r eward in s ocial d ilemmas   In many real-life situations people are required to cooperate mutually. However, the occurrence of mutual cooperation is not self-evident since it is tempting to free-ride on the generosity of others. Such conflicts between collective interests and self-interests are generally referred to as social dilemmas. To prevent defection and promote cooperation in social dilemmas people can use sanctions, either negative (punishments) or positive (rewards) ones. Although both are effective means to enhance cooperation, it is not likely that people are equally willing to provide and impose them because punishment is associated with considerable drawbacks compared to rewarding. Thus when people are in charge of the sanctions (i.e. leaders), they probably have a preference for rewarding over punishment. However, it is the question whether people also uphold this preference when they are less responsible for administering sanctions because the drawbacks of punishment might diminish. The aim of this project is to demonstrate experimentally whether the responsibility for sanctioning indeed influences people’s willingness to provide and impose punishments and rewards. Specifically, we will investigate whether people are more willing to costly reward and less willing to costly punish when they are the only one responsible for sanctioning compared to situations in which this responsibility is shared or absent. The experimental paradigm we will use is a public good dilemma game with sanction opportunities.
S16 - Marlon Mooijman (2 duo’s)  
  • Power, Status and Incentive Systems: Sticks, or Carrots? (1 duo, SOP or ECP)   Power and status are fundamental aspects of organizations: Managers and bosses all exert influence over their subordinates and have the possibility to control important outcomes (power) and get a significant amount of respect and admiration from others (status). Although power and status are often confounded, they are not the same: Some managers and bosses have power, but little status or vice versa. This project will focus on how power and status differentially impact preferences for incentive systems that either sanction bad behavior or reward good behavior.  We will also investigate how trust plays a fundamental role in driving preferences for sanctions vs. rewards.  For example, does power leads people to trust others less, which translates into a preference for sanctions over rewards? With this project we will investigate how different positions affects interpersonal trust and subsequent preferences for sanctions and rewards.    
  • Prototypical Leaders and Sanctions (1 duo, SOP or ECP)   To what extent do leaders enact justice? Despite decades of research on power and leadership, relatively little empirical work has investigated the psychology of justice among higher-ranked parties (Blader & Chen, 2012). Questions about if leaders ‘do justice’ according to the preferences of their followers is of importance, however, as justice is fundamental to good functioning groups, companies and societies (Tyler, 2006). Whether leaders enact justice depends, we suggest, on the extent whether leaders feel like a representative of the group they are leading (i.e., leader-group prototypicality). In this research project, we will investigate how leadership prototypicality affects the willingness of leaders to sanction unethical behavior amongst their subordinates.
 S17 - Felice van Nunspeet (1 duo)    
  • Social categorization and the experience of threat   Previous research has consistently revealed that people show negative (implicit) biases towards different kinds of outgroups. In the US, White’s negative implicit bias towards Blacks is associated with the experience of threat: When Whites are startled while viewing Black (as compared to White) faces, they show increased fear responses. These fear responses are measured using a startle eye blink task in which the strength of an eye blink (measured using electromyography) is related to activation in the amygdala (a brain structure associated with the experience of negative affect). It is however unknown whether this threat is related to race specifically (i.e., dark skin tone), or to negative traits associated with race (e.g., aggression). In the current project, we will use a startle eye blink task to examine whether people’s negative bias against Muslim women is associated with threat and whether this depends on the type of social categorization (i.e., categorizing “women with versus without a headscarf” as compared to “Muslims versus non-Muslims”). This project is especially suitable for students who have affinity with and/or interest in using psychophysiological research measures.
S18 -  Daan Scheepers (3 duo’s)    
  • In-group bias (1 duo)   People have strong preferences for the groups to which they belong (their fraternity, nation, favorite soccer team). This phenomenon, called “in-group bias”, can take diverse forms, from a more general positive image of the in-group to explicit discrimination of the out-group. Within this project we address the motivational underpinnings of in-group bias. In other words, which motives are served by in-group bias (e.g., self-esteem, certainty, meaning seeking), and under which condition does in-group bias serve one or the other function (e.g., identity versus instrumental functions)?    
  • Group flow (1 duo)   Flow is a mental state in which a person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity (Csiksentmihalyi, 1975). Flow can emerge during a wide range of activities, from sports and work to gaming and dancing. In the current line of research we address flow in groups. Although there are reasons to assume that groups are the ideal habitat for flow to develop, systematic research on flow in groups is scarce. In a lab experiment we focus on the role of deindividuation in the development of flow. In addition to self-report measures we measure flow by means of cardiovascular measures.    
  • Power and risk-taking (1 duo)   Economic decisions by power-holders, like CEOs and politicians, do often carry a certain risk: investigating in derivatives or obligations? Innovating or trusting on “proven” products and services? It has often been assumed that having power does automatically lead to increased risk-taking. The current banking crisis provides numerous illustrations of the dramatic consequences this can have (e.g., banks falling over, people losing jobs or pensions). In the current line of research we examine the relationship between power and risk-taking. We assume that apart from the more default meaning of power in terms of opportunity for action, power can also mean that one has a certain responsibility. We predict that in the context of salient responsibilities (e.g., for employees or customers) the relationship between power and risk-taking becomes less strong. Such a finding could have important implications for interventions making power-holders less reckless.  
S19 - Henk Staats (2 duo’s)      
  • Energy saving in organizations ( 1 duo)   Developing a sustainability record is becoming increasingly important for a variety of reasons, and companies are eager to make steps. Part of the research on this topic will be done in collaboration with EcoFys, a leading consultancy in renewable energy, energy systems & markets and energy & climate policy. Ecofys offers opportunities for a combined thesis and internship, possibly for two students. The challenge will be to develop and test interventions that succeed in saving energy and, more in general, turning companies into more sustainable organizations. For this project EcoFys will provide the technical knowhow to develop monitoring systems of energy use,  while the psychological expertise  will  be provided through cooperation of the supervisor at Leiden U., supervisor at Ecofys (also a research/consulting psychologist) and the students. An application interview may be part of the procedure.    
  • Stress and the city: The effects of nature (1 duo)   City life is typically more demanding and stressful than life in suburban and natural environments. Psychologists are looking at this phenomenon and in particular look at the role nature experiences play in the recovery from stress and attentional fatigue. Little research so far has been done on the social context of recovery processes although it is quite commonly accepted that the social environment, i.e., the people present or absent, may make a huge difference in the likelihood, ease, and speed of psychological restoration. In this project we want to see what difference it makes when people meet other people, strangers, during a simulated walk through a natural environment. Research will be experimental, in the lab, combining physio­logical measures and self reports. Students interested can benefit from work their predecessors have done in developing measures and techniques so that this domain can get a boost from all the enthusiastic contributions received. 
S20 - A  Herman Steensma
  • project A (1 duo, SOP)     Authenticiteit, motivatie en bevlogenheid in organisaties (1 duo, SOP)   Stage/scriptie combinatie (30 ECTS) in samenwerking met adviesbureau Humanage, Driebergen-Rijsenburg. Maximaal 2 deelnemers (minimaal 1 plaats, mogelijk twee stage/scriptieplaatsen).   Applicants for this thesis proposal should be fluent in Dutch and should be prepared to write management summaries and internship reports in Dutch. The thesis must be written in English.   Omdat het gaat om een stage-scriptiecombinatie, wordt nu eerst een beschrijving gegeven van adviesbureau Humanage. Daarna worden de hoofdlijnen geschetst van het stage/­scriptie­project. De specifieker concretisering van het project vindt plaats in onderling over­leg tussen de studenten, bureau Humanage (met name de twee directieleden, drs. Arieke Willemstein en drs. Danielle Schiphorst), en de universitaire begeleider, Herman Steensma. De combinatie van stage en scriptie impliceert een intensieve samenwerkingsrelatie met de medewerkers van Humanage. Daarom kan het project alleen doorgaan wanneer de student(en) en Humanage goed bij elkaar passen (een “goede klik”hebben).   Filosofie Humanage Humanage geeft advies op het gebied van personeel- en organisatievraagstukken. Wij houden ons bezig met o.a. psychologisch onderzoek, potentieelontwikkeling, coaching, training en HRD advies.   Talent als basis: Humanage werkt vanuit de overtuiging dat elk mens talenten heeft; iets wat als vanzelf gaat, waar je hart sneller van gaat kloppen en waar je energie van krijgt. Het is de kunst om die talenten zó te gebruiken dat het energie en plezier geeft om te groeien, persoonlijk en professioneel. Met als resultaat dat excelleren en plezierig werken samenkomt. Het is onze passie en ons talent om anderen hierin uit te dagen en te begeleiden.   Letterlijk genomen is ont-wikkelen het ontdoen van wikkels. En in die letterlijke zin kijkt Humanage naar de ontwikkeling van de mens in een organisatie. Het ‘ontdoen van wikkels’ staat daarbij voor het blootleggen van de kern: de talenten en passies. Uiteindelijk draait het erom dat die optimaal tot hun recht komen, ofwel: talent als basis. Hier is lef en moed voor nodig. Om uit je comfortzone te durven/willen stappen en keuzes te durven maken. Dit is de weg naar persoonlijke groei.   Eén van onze credo’s: 'sometimes you have to create what you want to be' gaat niet alleen over het creëren wat bij je past, maar ook over het nemen van verantwoordelijkheid voor je eigen ontwikkeling. Wanneer een mens durft te gaan voor groeien worden keuzes en daarmee gelukkige matches heel duidelijk. Het gaat hierbij om het voortdurend wederzijds scherp blijven op de match tussen de dynamiek van de persoonlijke groei en de (werk)omgeving en het creëren van goede randvoorwaarden om gezamenlijk tot ontwikkeling te komen. Op deze manier dagen wij organisaties uit en prikkelen we medewerkers om hun doelen samen te laten komen, zodat er sprake is van 1 + 1 = 3.   Opdrachtgevers Onze opdrachtgevers zijn afkomstig uit diverse branches en sectoren waaronder de techniek, zakelijke dienstverlening, financiële dienstverlening en non-profit. Enkele van onze opdrachtgevers zijn: ARCADIS, Akzo Nobel, Unicef, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, ING Nederland, Rabobank, Price Waterhouse Coopers, Vitae, Jones LangLaSalle, Brink Groep, KLPD, e-office, woningbouwverenigin­gen Stadgenoot, Vivare en Woon op Maat, MTV, diverse hogescholen, CRM Partners, BERG Toys, Oud Reuchlin & Boelen en Servex. Meer informatie over Humanage kun je vinden op onze website   Achtergrond onderzoek Wij geloven in de 'person-environment fit', bestaande uit de 'person-job fit' en de 'person-organisation fit'. Het idee is dat hoe groter de fit, hoe meer bevlogenheid, plezier en resultaten dit zal opleveren voor zowel mens als organisatie. En andersom, hoe groter de mismatch hoe meer kans op bijvoorbeeld verzuim, ontevredenheid, burnout en verloop.   Het is onze passie om mensen en organisaties te stimuleren om vanuit talent te groeien. Om zo te kiezen voor het proces van motivatie (met als basis zelfinzicht) en weg te blijven van het proces van erosie (dat ontstaat als er geen goede fit is).   Wij combineren het doen van wetenschappelijk onderzoek met het praktisch toepasbaar maken van de inzichten en resultaten. Innovatieve thema’s waar wij momenteel onderzoek naar doen zijn bevlogenheid en authenticiteit. Aansluitend op onze filosofie geloven wij dat als je dicht bij je zelf blijft (authenticiteit) en van daar uit keuzes durft te maken en je eigen route uitstippelt, dit bijdraagt aan bevlogenheid. Wij zien ook in de praktijk dat authenticiteit en bevlogenheid belangrijke succesfactoren zijn.   Kader stage scriptie 2013-2014 De afgelopen vijf studiejaren hebben negen studenten uit Leiden in diverse deelprojecten gewerkt aan onderzoek naar de invloed van bevlogenheid op werkbeleving en –succes (met name in de eerste twee deelprojecten) en aan onderzoek naar de rol van authenticiteit daarbij (met name in de vervolgprojecten). Daarbij werd in het eerste deelproject vooral gekeken naar de relatie tussen persoonlijkheidsfactoren en werkbevlogenheid, terwijl in het tweede project de effecten van person-environment fit op bevlogenheid zijn onderzocht. In het derde deelproject werd een authenticiteitstest gevalideerd, en werd de relatie tussen authenticiteit en defensiemechanismen in kaart gebracht. In het vierde deelproject werd vooral gekeken naar de relatie tussen authenticiteit, persoon-organisatiefit, motivatie en bevlogenheid.  Een vijfde deelproject onderzocht de betrouw­baarheid en validiteit van een bijgestelde authenticiteitstest, met speciale aandacht voor mogelijke verstoring door social desirability en voor de rol van contingent self-esteem. In het zesde deelproject werden  de Self-Determination Theory  en het Job Demands-Resourcesmodel gecombi­neerd tot een uit modules opgebouwd model waarmee de relatie tussen authenticiteit  en werkbevlogenheid kon worden verklaard. Toetsing met behulp van vragenlijsten bevestigde dat model op hoofdlijnen. In het zevende deelproject zijn de relaties tussen authenticiteit, jobkeuze processen, affectieve en skill-based leerprocessen, persoon-omgevingsfit en werkbevlogen­heid onderzocht op twee manieren: enerzijds via een experiment, anderzijds met een grootschaliger vragenlijstonderzoek. Het achtste en negende deelproject bouwden daarop voort. In het achtste deelproject is het model verfijnd door de stabiliteit van authenticiteit te onderzoeken. Authenticiteit kan worden geplaatst op een trait-state continuum, tussen “traits”en “states”. Dit continuum is weer onderdeel van een model waarbij werkbevlogenheid wordt beïnvloed via  een samenspel tussen  “statelike psychological resources”, positieve stemming, en well-being. Ook is bestudeerd of bepaalde cruciale levenservaringen authenticiteit bevorderen. In het negende deelproject is veel inzicht verkregen in het proces waardoor authenticiteit via een betere persoon-omgeving “fit” kan leiden tot hogere werkbevlogenheid. Er is een zorgvuldig onderscheid gemaakt tussen diverse soorten fit. Zo blijkt “supplementary fit” (goede overeenstemming tussen de waarden van de persoon en de organisatie) van groot belang voor een andere vorm van fit: de “complementary fit” (o.a. afstemming van taakeisen op capaciteiten van personen, maar ook van persoonlijke behoeften op de mogelijkheden tot bevrediging daarvan die de organisatie biedt). Via die route lijkt versterking van werkbevlogenheid mogelijk. Werksatisfactie en identificatie met de organisatie (twee belangrijke effecten van een goede persoon-omgeving fit) spelen hierbij eveneens een rol. In dit project werden ook aanwijzingen gevonden voor het bestaan van feedbackloops van werkbevlogenheid en waardenfit naar authenticiteit van personen.    Deze projecten hebben veel opgeleverd, niet alleen op het gebied van theorietoetsing, maar ook op het terrein van diagnose- en interventie instrumenten. De resultaten zijn o.a. gepresenteerd op enkele  speciale bedrijfsevents; ook zijn populair-wetenschappelijke samenvattingen en rapporten gemaakt, en is er in deel­nemende organisaties feedback gegeven. Er zijn negen scripties over de deelonderzoeken geschreven, er zijn bijdragen geleverd aan internationale wetenschappelijke symposia, en er worden ook enkele wetenschappelijke artikelen voorbereid.   Wij hebben bij Humanage vanuit de literatuur gecombineerd met onze praktijkervaring een theoretisch kader ontwikkeld over authenticiteit. Naar ons idee bestaat authenticiteit uit een aantal deelaspecten. Die deelaspecten kun je meten, waarmee wij een instrument hebben ontwikkeld om authenticiteit te meten. Het instrument is inmiddels met succes getoetst in verschillende deelprojecten. Authenticiteit is ‘hot’ momenteel en er is veel behoefte vanuit de markt om authenticiteit te kunnen meten en praktisch toepasbaar te maken. Hier willen we graag een bijdrage aan leveren.   Projecten in 2013 -2014 Het theoretische model moet nog verder onderbouwd en getoetst worden. Ook is nog meer onderzoek nodig naar verschillende deelaspecten. Het is van groot belang meer inzicht te krijgen in causale processen. Aan het  achtste en negende deelproject is deelgenomen door een groot aantal werknemers (N = 337). Zij zullen opnieuw benaderd worden, zodat via longitudinaal onderzoek inzicht  wordt verkregen in causale processen (en mogelijk ook in “omgekeerde” causaliteit). In het studiejaar 2013-2014 zal bij deze werknemers in organisaties opnieuw onderzoek worden gedaan naar de relatie tussen authenticiteit, intrinsieke motivatie, ontwikkelingsprocessen, “fit” en werkbetrokkenheid. Maar het nieuwe onderzoek is niet een simpele herhalingsoefening. We willen ook meer inzicht verwerven in de rol die leiderschap speelt. De interesse gaat vooral uit naar  de relaties tussen transformationeel leiderschap, “servant” leadership, en authentiek leiderschap. Ook het verband tussen deze leiderschapsvormen en  “vertrouwen” zal worden onderzocht. De reeds bestaande leiderschapstests die we gebruiken zullen verder worden uitgewerkt, getoetst en verbeterd. De combinatie van stage en scriptie biedt de mogelijkheid deze diverse activiteiten – het longitudinale onderzoek en het ontwikkelen/ verbeteren van, vooral, leiderschapstests, te integreren in een project.   Dit verder uitbouwen en toetsen van het model zouden we graag doen in samenwerking met scriptie/stage studenten. Zij zullen tijdens het project als onderdeel van de stage ook kennismaken met overige activiteiten van Humanage.   Contactpersoon  Humanage: Drs. Arieke Willemstein, T: 030 -6970304.
 
S20-B Herman Steensma
  • B (1 student SOP)   Organisatie en ontwikkeling: Het kwartiermakersgilde als netwerk organisa­tie en expertisecentrum voor de publieke sector   Applicants for this thesis proposal should be fluent in Dutch and should be prepared to write management summaries and internship reports in Dutch. The thesis must be written in English. Stage/scriptiecombinatie (30 ECTS) in samenwerking met het KWARTIERMAKERSGILDE.   Onze overheid heeft te maken met een snel veranderende samenleving. Mensen worden ouder, er is meer zorg nodig, het economisch zwaartepunt van de wereld verschuift naar andere landen en regio’s, grondstoffen worden schaarser, bevolkingsgroepen en hun culturen botsen soms met elkaar, enzovoorts. De overheid moet op al deze (en vele andere) ontwikkelingen adequaat reageren, en bij voorkeur ook nog goed kunnen anticiperen op nieuwe ontwikkelingen. Dat kan alleen met een effectief en efficiënt werkende ambtenarenorganisatie. Een organisatie die flexibel en slagvaardig is. In zo’n flexibele en slagvaardige organisatie ontstaan steeds nieuwe afdelingen, projecten, en programma’s. Binnen en rondom overheidsorganisaties en publieke private samenwerkingsvormen moeten die slim worden ingericht en op een efficiënte wijze met elkaar worden verbonden. Er moet een strategie worden ontwikkeld, de doelen moeten helder zijn, doelgroepen moeten worden vastgesteld, er moet personeel worden aangetrokken, de financiering moet worden geregeld, allerlei plannen moeten worden opgesteld, enzovoort. Dit zijn zaken die vallen onder wat wel het “kwartier­maken” wordt genoemd. Kwartiermaken vergt veel talent en kennis. Maar: goed kwartiermaken kun je ook leren. Het is een vak. En dat vak valt te leren bij het KWARTIERMAKERSGILDE.   Het Kwartiermakersgilde Het Kwartiermakersgilde  is een expertisecentrum van en voor kwartiermakers in de publieke sector. Doel is om bij te dragen aan de professionalisering van kwartiermakers en daarmee aan de kwaliteitsverbetering van het kwartiermaken. Het expertisecentrum stelt kennis en ervaring beschikbaar. Het is een netwerkorganisatie waarin de leden deze kennis en ervaring met elkaar delen. Het expertisecentrum doet onderzoek naar de praktijk van het kwartiermaken en het adviseert en ondersteunt kwartiermakers en opdrachtgevers. De naam “Kwartiermakers gilde” geeft aan dat het expertisecentrum veel gebruik maakt (en wil maken) van een eeuwenoud leer- en opleidingsprincipe: de “leermeester-gezel relatie”, zoals die vorm kreeg in de Middeleeuwse gilden.  In die relatie kan jong van oud leren, onervaren van ervaren, etc. In 2013 is door masterstudent Jordy Lievers onderzoek gedaan naar wat onder kwartiermaken kan worden verstaan en zijn veel kwartiermakers geïnterviewd. Dit heeft geresulteerd in de masterthesis “Quartermastering in Practice, a study into the needs of quartermasters in the Dutch public sector. ‘ Daarnaast heeft Jordy praktisch vormgegeven aan het verder inrichten van de onderneming en het organiseren van het eerste symposium in juli 2013. In de komende periode werkt Het Kwartiermakersgilde aan een handboek dat in co- creatie wordt ontwikkeld. Daarbij zijn casestudies nodig om in beeld te brengen hoe het vak in de praktijk vorm krijgt en hoe dit ‘high-performance vak’ wordt uitgevoerd en hoe daarin door opdrachtgevers aangestuurd wordt. Hoe is de relatie tussen kwartiermaker en opdrachtgever? Op welke wijze komt de ondernemende stijl tot uiting? Welke vaardigheden en beïnvloedingtactieken worden ingezet en wanneer en hoe werkt dat? Hoe worden relaties opgebouwd en hoe werkt dat inspireren nu eigenlijk? Van welke netwerkorganisaties kan Het Kwartiermakersgilde leren en met welke partners kunnen strategische verbindingen worden aangegaan? Hoe ziet het business model eruit en wat zijn de verdienmodellen? Op dit soort vragen moet een antwoord worden gevonden in een stage/scriptie project.   Het project Het onderzoek moet een bijdrage leveren aan het verder onderbouwen en het op een moderne leest vormgeven van Het Kwartiermakersgilde. Daartoe moet organisatorische en historische kennis worden verzameld en geëvalueerd op een wetenschappelijk verantwoorde wijze, maar met een goed oog voor de toepasbaarheid ervan. Er moet gebruik worden gemaakt van kennis uit verleden en heden, kennis van leermeester/gezelrelaties, professionalisering, organisatieontwikkeling, enzovoorts. Diverse methoden van onderzoek kunnen hierbij worden toegepast, o.a. interviews, enquêtes, historisch onderzoek, archiefonderzoek, observaties, inhoudsanalyses e.d. Hiermee is het project nog slechts op hoofdlijnen geschetst. De exacte invulling van de onderzoeksvragen, de op te stellen hypothesen, de te gebruiken methoden en de tijdsplanning vindt plaats in overleg tussen de student, de begeleider(s) van Het Kwartiermakersgilde, en de universitaire begeleider (Herman Steensma).  
S21 - Wolfgang Steinel (3 duo’s)    
  • Suspicion and sense-making in ultimatum bargaining (1 duo, SOP or ECP)   In economic decisions like bargaining, it is a common belief that high offers are more readily accepted than low offers. In the Ultimatum Bargaining Game, for example, allocators offer more value to recipients in order to tempt them to accept the proposal. Recently, boundary conditions of this general wisdom have been documented:  when bargaining opponents had private information over the total amount that was to be distributed, participants became suspicious about high offers (i.e., offers that were beneficial to themselves), but not about low or equal offers. Due to suspicion, participants rejected high offers more often than equal offers. Master thesis research will follow up on this finding, e.g. by examining the perceptions and  strategic behavior of allocators, gain a better understanding of the underlying processes by  studying the role of trust and suspicion, or by investigating the role of suspicion in inter-group encounters.  
  • Intragroup conflict in intergroup negotiations (1 duo, S&O)   In intergroup encounters, negotiators often represent the interests of their constituency. Importantly, the members of a constituency do not necessarily have to speak with one voice. Groups consist of different individuals, and within-group dynamics may have important consequences for the between-group negotiation. Several studies have recently addressed these shortcomings and have investigated how representatives negotiate on behalf of constituencies in which some factions favor a cooperative (referred to as "doves"), and other factions favor a competitive approach (referred to as "hawks"). A common finding is that a hawkish minority in an otherwise dovish constituency can influence the representative to act more competitively, while a dovish minority in an otherwise hawkish constituency does not influence the representative to act more cooperatively. Following up on this line of research, we want to explore what factors make doves more influential, how hawks and doves influence their representative in different types of negotiations (e.g. about values or about interest), or how the extremity of a constituency influence the representative negotiator.  
  • The price of telling lies (1 duo, S&O)   Telling lies comes with a price: Even when they cannot get caught and don't have to fear sanctions or a damage of your reputation, people often refrain from cheating, because doing so would damage their self-perception as honest individuals. When cheating can easily be justified, however, people are more likely to engage in self-serving unethical acts. Prior research (e.g., Shalvi, Dana, Handgraaf, & De Dreu, 2011) showed that people lie more easily when they can justify their lies, and observing desirable counterfactuals are one such justification. Their participants rolled a dice in secret, and were paid according to the outcome they reported themselves. Participants who rolled three times, with the first roll being decisive, more often reported high numbers than people who rolled only once, most likely because a number observed in a non-decisive roll served as a justification to over-report. The current project aims to investigate how other-related motives influence the tendency to cheat, when self-serving lies damage another person's outcomes. 
S22 - Riël Vermunt (1 duo)    
  • Unequal allocation of resources and allocator’s reactions   Exchange and allocation of resources are important activities in people’s life. Resources may be money, time or information.   Our basic assumption is that people are motivated to divide resources equally between self and others. It is generally accepted that allocator’s deviation from equality initiates a cascade of moral, psychological, and physiological reactions: construction of justifications, feelings of guilt, shame, and/or stress.   The aim of the project is to unravel the intricate combination of allocator’s reactions.   One environment to study the abovementioned reactions is the Ultimatum Bargaining game (UBG). In an UBG, allocator proposes a certain division of a resource between self and other (recipient). If recipient accepts the offer both players receive the proposed amount. If, however, recipient refuses the offer, both players receive nothing of the resource. In an UBG, allocators seldom keep more than 70% of the resource for themselves. This observation may be the starting point for several experiments.   For instance, participants in an UBG who are brought in a situation in which they are inclined to keep more than 70% of the resource for themselves may feel guilty, ashamed, and /or stressed. However, availability of justifications may alter participant’s moral, psychological and physiological responses.
S23 - Arjaan Wit (1 duo for topic A or B)    
  • Economic and emotional costs/benefits of the use of rewards and punishments to promote cooperation and counteract free riding   One way to promote cooperation and counteract free riding in a task group is to appoint a leader or coordinator who can reward cooperative task group members and/or punish the non-cooperative task group members. The present project does not focus on the effects of rewards and punishments on group members’ performance, but on.    
  • Categorization, identification and cooperation in nested social dilemmas   In its simplest generic form, a social dilemma poses a conflict between private and collective interests. In organizations and society, however, people are often faced with a conflict between private, (sub)group, and collective interests. The present research focuses on participants' simultaneous weighing of these multiple (at least three) nested interests. Research by Wit and Kerr (2002) suggests that increased salience of social categorization of any level of the hierarchy (individuals, subgroups, collective) increases participants' concern for the corresponding level of interest. Concern for the collective interest, which is lowest under categorization as two subgroups, can be promoted by any of several means, such as individuating the members of the own subgroup and/or individuating the members of the opposing subgroup, or cross-categorization with the opposing subgroup. In the present project, the Nested Social Dilemma paradigm will be used in a field or laboratory setting to study cooperation and competition within and between organizational (sub)groups, organizational citizenship behavior, or intra/inter-(sub)group mobility.       

Scriptieonderwerpen ECP september 2013

E1 - Belle Derks (1 duo, ECP or SOP)    

  • Gendered advertising: Does it work? Over the past years, there seems to be a rise in advertisements that feature some form of gender stereotypes, be it subtle jokes about how women want a walk-in closet, while men want a walk-in beer fridge (as in a Heineken advertisement), or the blatant sexual advertisements of Suit Supply that created quite a stir. Although these advertisements are often perceived quite positively, it’s unclear how these advertisements affect consumers’ implicit evaluation of the product, and how gender of the perceiver affects these evaluations. Although both men and women may find these commercials funny, is it possible that on an implicit level gendered advertisements serve to alienate the gender group that is made fun of? For example, if the commercial targets women by making fun of men, does that affect women’s evaluation of the product positively and men’s evaluation negatively? And are people aware of the connection between how much they like gendered advertising, and whether they will actually buy a product? Or does gendered advertising do more harm than good? These questions will be examined in a lab experiment in which we examine the effect of newly designed fake advertisements on explicit and implicit ratings of product evaluation.
 
  E2 - Eric van Dijk (2 duo’s, ECP or SOP)
  • Why and when do we (dis)trust others? Trust can be defined as the willingness to make yourself vulnerable to the actions of others. Trust in others is essential in economic contexts like buying (do you trust that the other will deliver or pay? That the product is as good as the add says?) and bargaining (do you trust your opponent?). To study people’s willingness to trust others, research in the field of behavioral economics often applies the trust game (TG). In the TG there are two players who can share a certain amount of money. The first player (trustor) has the possibility to divide a sum of money equally or to give it all to the second player (trustee). If the first player decides to share the money, both players get their equal share and the game ends. However, if the first player gives all the money to the second player the total amount of money is tripled. Next, the second player has the possibility to reciprocate trust and share the increased amount of money with first player, or to exploit trust by keeping all the money. People’s willingness to let player 2 decide is then taken as a measure of trust. This experimental setting can be used to study the psychology of trust. For example, one might study whether people are as trusting (and trustworthy) when it comes to paying (negative outcomes) as when it comes to earning (positive outcomes). The answer to such a simple question can easily be found by conducting a lab experiment, and that is what we’ll do.
 
E3 - Wilco van Dijk (1 or more duo’s)    
  • Vengeance is mine! In his book The laws of emotion Nico Frijda describes the desire for vengeance as “one of the most potent human passions” and defines it as “a state of impulse, of involuntary action readiness, generated by an appraisal, often accompanied by bodily excitement, and with every aspect of control precedence: preoccupation, single-minded goal pursuit, neglect of unwelcome information, and interference with other activities”. In this project we will examine people’s desire for (consumer) vengeance after they have been wronged and when and how this desire motivates (consumer) revenge behaviors (direct revenge, avoidance, negative word-of-mouth). This project consists of a survey that will be administered in various countries (and in different languages), so it is especially suitable for international students.
  E4 - Lotte van Dillen (1 student)   Are you a master student with experience in consumer psychology and do you want to be an intern within an international company, where you will have the opportunity to build a bridge between scientific literature and marketing practice? Then you may want to consider this internship at FrieslandCampina.Internship & Thesis Consumer Science FrieslandCampinaAssignment description: In the period where you will be working at FrieslandCampina, you will be working on research relating to consumer taste perception. Recent research by Lotte van Dillen (Leiden University) showed how consumers perceive products to taste less intense when distracted (by e.g., watching tv while eating or drinking). You will be asked to build on this research, by replicating the findings for dairy products, but also by developing and conducting new research in this area together with researchers and/or product developers from within FrieslandCampina.   In addition, you are asked to keep an eye on practice by continuously thinking on how your findings can be of relevance to FrieslandCampina. At the end of the internship, you will present your findings to a delegacy of FrieslandCampina research and development employees.   During the internship, you will perform the above assignment within the Sensory & Consumer Science group of FrieslandCampina Corporate Research. Intern Profile: - You have affiliation and/or experience with consumer behavior and taste perception. You are motivated to understand how consumer eating behavior works. - You have good analytical skills and are interested in applications of consumer psychological theory. -  All written communication will be in English; you have excellent English communication skills. -  Both Dutch & international students are welcome to apply. When: Start date preferably September 1st, for a period of 5 months (indicative). Where: You will work at least 2 days per week at FrieslandCampina Innovation (located in Wageningen), and regularly at our main office (located in Amersfoort). Working from home / university on a regular base on remaining days is no problem. Interested? For more information & application, please contact: Martijn Veltkamp, PhD FrieslandCampina Sensory & Consumer Science Email: About FrieslandCampina & the Consumer Science group FrieslandCampina employs over 20.000 people. With our brands - over 30 - we reach millions of people in more than 100 countries (Dutch examples include Campina; Mona; Appelsientje). FrieslandCampina consists of a number of business groups and operating companies with offices all around the world. The head office is located in Amersfoort, the Netherlands. In Deventer, FrieslandCampina Research develops foundations for further research and development of innovative products and processes within FrieslandCampina. The Sensory & Consumer Science group focuses on better understanding consumer processes, to deliver building blocks for product, packaging, and product/brand communication development.   E5 -  Naomi Ellemers (1 duo (ECP or SOP)  
  • Ethics climates in the banking sector  The current financial and economic crisis has revealed how dependent we all are on decisions that are made in the banking sector. Many attempts have been made to explain how it was possible that people working in this sector prioritized their personal and organizational financial profits above customer interests, and made irresponsibly risky investment decisions, with the result of jeopardizing the stability of the entire political and financial system. To the extent that such explanations invoke psychological insights, these tend to focus on the personality of individual bankers as being neurotic, autistic, or immoral. In our research program, we take a different approach, as we focus on specific characteristics of the organizational culture and ethics climate in the banking sector as organizational features that elicit and reward irresponsible financial decision making. The thesis will be part of our broader efforts to identify and understand the impact of organizational ethics climates on financial decision making in the banking sector. The aim is to conduct an empirical study of the organizational characteristics and features that characterize and define the way ethical implications of financial decisions are being treated in different banks. After the specific research question is formulated, the empirical research will consist of collecting data about specific organizational features and practices that characterize different organizational cultures and are relevant to the research question. The aim is to build a data base of organizational characteristics and outcomes that can be statistically analysed as a way to draw conclusions about the relation between different ethics climates in banks and the financial decisions they make.
Reading suggestions Joris Luyendijk – The Joris Luyendijk banking blog: Going native in the world of finance. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/joris-luyendijk-banking-blog Ellemers, N. (2003). Identity, culture, and change in organizations: A social identity analysis and three illustrative cases. In: Haslam, A., Van Knippenberg, D., Platow, M., & Ellemers, N. Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice (191-204). Psychology Press. Ellemers, N., Pagliaro, S., & Barreto, M. (2013).  Morality and behavioural regulation in groups: A social identity approach. European Review of Social Psychology. Schneider, B., Erhart, M.G., & Macey, W.J. (2013). Organizational climate and culture.  Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 361-388.  
  E6 -Hanneke Hendriks (3 duo’s)
  • The influence of alcohol commercials on interpersonal communication and subsequent brand attitudes, advertisement attitudes, and alcohol consumption (1 duo, ECP) Advertising for alcoholic beverages has been consistently linked to an increase in alcohol consumption. A potential explanation for this increase in alcohol consumption is that pro-alcohol ads induce conversations in favor of alcohol consumption, alcohol commercials, or the brand of the alcoholic beverage. These discussions may subsequently stimulate positive brand and advertisement attitudes, and ultimately increase drinking behaviors. While the relevance of Word-of-Mouth in advertising contexts has been abundantly shown (i.e., talking about products can both negatively and positively influence product attitudes and buying behaviors), the influence of advertising for unhealthy behaviors or products in conjunction with interpersonal communication has been underexplored. This project aims to investigate whether, and if so how, alcohol commercials influence interpersonal communication about alcohol and subsequent persuasion effects. Several questions can be addressed, such as (1) Do people talk about alcohol commercials or brands after exposure to alcohol advertising? (2) Are such discussions in favor or against alcohol consumption and products? (3) Do people (intend to) consume more alcohol after talking about an alcohol commercial?
  • Online and offline communication about behaviors, advertisements, or products: Differences and similarities in persuasion (2 duo’s, ECP or SOP) Conversations about behaviors can strongly influence attitudes and intentions towards these behaviors. For instance, talking about alcohol consumption has been shown to increase drinking behaviors. In marketing contexts it has been shown that talking about a product in a positive way can increase product sales, whereas complaining about a product can decrease liking towards the product and buying intentions. Many of these studies have been conducted in offline face-to-face settings. However, people generally spend a lot of time on the Internet, and a large part of this time online is spent socializing with others (e.g., Facebook). Whether online discussions have the same persuasive impact as offline conversations is not yet clear. Potentially, due to lower feelings of trust, a lack of nonverbal cues, and greater perceptions of anonymity in online communication settings, this results in a weaker influence of online interpersonal discussions as compared to offline discussions. This project aims to explore the differences and similarities between offline and online communication in terms of subsequent persuasion outcomes. An additional aim of this project can be to investigate the underlying processes that account for differences and similarities between these two different ways of communicating.

E7 - Marina Kouzakova (2 duo’s)  
  • How to switch off a moral conflict? Moral conflicts are abundantly present in our social lives and they are notoriously hard to ‘switch off’. For instance, when you disagree with someone on a more tangible issue, such as money, property, or amount of time (that is what we generally call resource conflicts), you may resolve your conflict by resorting to compromises and trade-offs. However, when your friends, colleagues, customers, business partners or loved ones hold opposing values or opposing moral judgments about your joint course of actions, resolution of your conflict may be incredible difficult to achieve because both parties refuse to yield to something they feel is simply wrong to do. Friendships, relationships and even marriages can perish as a result of unresolved moral conflicts. Often moral conflicts are mixed with resource conflicts (think of a conflict about inheritance where a conflict about what’s fair and right underlies the division of tangible goods). The problem of moral conflict resolution becomes even clearer on a scale of corporate business, (inter)national politics and intercultural groups. In this project we are looking for a hidden button to effectively resolve or diminish conflicts that are grounded in opposing values and moral judgments. Although the psychology of social influence offers a number of effective low-cost tools to persuade an opponent, such tools are hardly tested in a conflict context. For instance, social influence literature distinguishes two general approaches to influence people: an alpha (“…and this is not all” ‘tellsell’ approach to maximize gains) and an omega (“…only if you call within an hour” approach to reduce losses). In this project we will test the applicability of these two general approaches using various Robert Cialdini’s influence techniques such as ‘low ball’, ‘foot-in-the-door’ etc. Furthermore, the use of nonverbal behavior such as (non)verbal mimicry, power poses, interpersonal distance etc. has proved to be a subtle, but an effective tool in persuading people. Your own brilliant input on persuasion methods will certainly be considered. The idea is to put social influence techniques in an experimental design and test them in field studies.  
  E8 - Erik de Kwaadsteniet (3 duo’s, ECP or S&O)
  • The effects of (uncertain) financial sanctions in social dilemmas (1 duo) Many researchers have focused on the question as to how people can be stimulated to cooperate. In other words, how can people be stimulated to further the interests of the collective to which they belong instead of fulfilling their own narrow self-interest? For instance, how can people be stimulated to pay taxes, and how can tax evasion be prevented? One straight-forward solution is the use of financial sanctions. Empirical research has repeatedly demonstrated that by rewarding those who do cooperate or by punishing those who defect (e.g., by imposing a fine on tax avoiders), cooperation can indeed be increased (see e.g., Balliet, Mulder, & Van Lange, 2010). However, in the real-world it is not always so easy to distinguish cooperators from defectors, thereby hampering the administration of such sanctions. Put differently, due to the noise and uncertainty that often occurs in real-life settings (e.g., not every individual act of tax evasion can be detected), there is always a chance that defectors will get away with their non-cooperative behavior. Quite surprisingly, however, hardly any research to date has focused on the question as to how such uncertainty may undermine the positive effects of financial sanctions on cooperation. The present project will aim to answer this question. These questions will be answered using experimental methods.
  • Reputational benefits of altruistic sanctioning in social dilemmas (1 duo) Research on sanctions in social dilemmas has repeatedly shown that punishments and rewards can effectively promote cooperation and deter defection. Moreover, research on altruistic punishment and reward has demonstrated that people are even willing to give up their own endowments to sanction others. However, the question as to why people are prepared to altruistically sanction others is an evolutionary puzzle. One possibility is that sanctioning has reputational benefits for the sanctioner (e.g., Barclay, 2006; Kiyonari & Barclay, 2008). In the present project, we will focus on the reputational benefits of different types of altruistic sanctions. More specifically, we aim to answer the question as to whether rewarding cooperators is more beneficial to one’s reputation than punishing defectors. Moreover, we will investigate the reputational benefits of punishing and rewarding under different levels of noise (cf. Van Lange, 1998). Does altruistic sanctioning also have reputational benefits if - due to noise - there is uncertainty about whether the administered sanction is justified or not? These questions will be answered using experimental methods.
  • Punishing the perpetrator or compensating the victim? (1 duo) When someone (a perpetrator) has administered harm to someone else (the victim), the question often arises as to whether the perpetrator should be punished (e.g., by paying a fine) or if the victim should be financially compensated for the harm done. In this project, we will investigate whether people have a preference for perpetrator punishment or victim compensation. Furthermore, we will focus on the role of intentionality. For instance, if people know that someone was intentionally harmed, do they prefer punishment over compensation? And what if the intentionality behind the harm is unknown? These questions will be answered using experimental methods.
  E9 -Colette van Laar (1 duo, ECP or SOP)
  • Stopping smoking: Does using knowledge of group identity processes help? While many smokers respond to anti-smoking measures by decreasing or stopping with smoking, anti-smoking measures appear ineffective in persuading a substantial group of smokers, and particularly those with lower socio-economic status, to stop smoking. In the current work we will examine how an understanding of group identity processes may help develop measures to persuade these smokers too to stop smoking. These measures will thus address not smoking as such but the ties and contacts smokers have with others around them and the role this plays in their continuation and efforts to stop smoking. The results of this work can help inform agencies and parties interested in smoking cessation to develop more effective anti-smoking measures to reach in particular these more difficult to persuade groups.
  E10 - Gert-Jan Lelieveld (2 duo’s) 
  • The interpersonal effects of emotions in bargaining settings (1 duo) Emotions can have a huge impact on negotiation settings. Not only a person’s own emotion can influence his/her behavior, but emotions of others can also affect bargaining behavior. Previous research has shown that different negative emotions have different effects on opponents in negotiations. This research just focused on the negative emotions anger and disappointment. Little research has focused on the interpersonal effects of other negative emotions. Also, although it is hard to distinguish between different positive emotions, it is very interesting to investigate differences between the interpersonal effects of different positive emotions (such as hope, gratitude, pride, happiness). We will investigate this using lab experiments.
  • Benefitting from others’ financial losses: yes or no? (1 duo) In economic decision-making and in the stock market, it is not done that people benefit from the misfortunes of others. That is, people who for instance gain money from a bet that a company's stock will decline or that a natural disaster will occur are considered to be immoral, even though their decisions do not change the outcomes of the stock or the natural disaster. We analyzed behavior of people in the Dutch tv-show Miljoenenjacht, which showed that people do not like to benefit from others’ losses. In this research we will follow up on this initial study by investigating whether people who have the option to benefit from others’ financial losses will choose not to, even though it does not change the fact that others will suffer a financial loss. Moreover, we will investigate why and under what conditions this is the case.
  E11 - Marret Noordewier(2 duo’s)
  • The shock of the new: Predicting interest in novelty and innovation (1 duo) Quite often, new products are launched or existing products are innovated. How do consumers respond to these new products? On the one side, novelty can be exciting and interesting, as it can make consumers curious. On the other side, novelty can be threatening as it is unknown and therefore uncertain. In this project, we will investigate when and why consumers like or dislike new products. Based on work on interest (e.g., Silvia, 2005), we will test whether increasing consumers’ coping potential will also increase their interest in novel products.
  • Surprise! Unexpectedness and consumer behavior (1 duo)  An unexpected sale, a surprising commercial, an unanticipated: there are numerous situations in which consumers are surprised. In the present project, we will focus on consequences of the emotion surprise for consumer behavior. Sometimes surprise feel bad because it is in conflict with people’s desire for predictability and structure. At other times surprise can feel particularly good because surprise is known to intensify responses: positive surprises, as compared to expected positive outcomes, can make people thus extra happy. In this project, we will investigate when and why consumers feel good or bad about surprises by identifying factors that enable people to move beyond their need for predictability.
  E12 - Felice van Nunspeet (1 duo)
  • Health-promoting logo’s and people’s implicit preferences for food products Although people may be well aware of their preferences, they may not always be honest in reporting them. For example, people who love eating fast food may conceal these preferences when they are in a health-promoting environment. Using a startle eye blink task, the implicit preferences of these people may however still become evident. In such tasks, the strength of an eye blink (measured using electromyography) is related to activation in the amygdala (a brain structure associated with the experience of negative affect). Previous consumer psychology research has revealed that people show increased eye blinks when they view pictures of disliked as compared to liked products. In the current project, we will use a startle eye blink task to examine the effect of the “ik kies bewust” (“I choose consciously”) food campaign: An intervention introduced to focus people on (relatively) healthy products. Specifically, we will test whether people’s implicit preferences for healthy products increase when they are confronted with the “ik kies bewust” (“I choose consciously”) logo. This project is especially suitable for students who have affinity with and/or interest in using psychophysiological research measures.  
  E13 - Marijke van Putten (3 duo’s)
  • Mixed emotions and product choice (1 duo) In this project we will investigate when people prefer products that provide pleasure (so-called wants, or hedonic products) and when they prefer products that provide utility (so-called shoulds, or utilitarian purposes). Specifically we will investigate the role of emotions. The general idea is that although happiness and sadness can both increase preference for wants, mixed emotions (feeling happy and sad at the same time) will increase reflection and therefore increase preference for should options.
Suggested readings Bazerman, M. H., Tenbrunsel, A.E., and Wade- Benzoni, K. (1998). Negotiating with yourself and losing: Understanding and managing competing internal preferences.  Academy of Management Review, 23 (2), 225-41. Okada, E.M. (2005). Justification effects on consumer choice of hedonic and utilitarian goods. Journal of Marketing Research, 42 (1), 43-53. Larsen, J.T., McGraw, A.P., & Cacioppo, J.T. (2001). Can people feel happy and sad at the same time? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,81, 684–696.   Rothman, N.B. (2011). Steering sheep: How expressed emotional ambivalence elicits dominance in interdependent decision making contexts. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116, 66–82.  
  • Mixed Emotions and power in negotiations (joint project with Gert-Jan Lelieveld) (1 duo) Past research on negotiations has investigated the impact of communicating one single emotion on offers in negotiations. However, often people experience mixed emotions, for example because an outcome is positive and at the same time disappointing, because a higher outcome was expected (e.g., ). Rothman (2011)’s results show that mixed emotions in negotiations signal deliberation and therefore submissiveness. People expressing mixed emotions received lower offers than people expressing happiness or anger alone. The question in the current research is, whether the deliberation signalled by mixed emotions will always be judged as submissiveness. Imagine Leiden students 200 years ago, waiting in the ‘sweat chamber’for the judment of the exam committee. Will they sweat less when the committee chair told them he had to deliberate, because he has mixed feelings about the exam? We think not. In the present study we will investigate the role of power on the perceived submissiveness signaled by mixed emotions.
Suggested readings Larsen, J. T., McGraw, A. P., Mellers, B. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). The agony of victory and thrill of defeat - Mixed emotional reactions to disappointing wins and relieving losses. Psychological Science, 15, 325-330 Lelieveld, G.-J., Van Dijk, E., Van Beest, I., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2012). Why anger and disappointment affect other's bargaining behavior differently: The moderating role of power and the mediating role of reciprocal and complementary emotions, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1209-1221. Rothman, N.B. (2011). Steering sheep: How expressed emotional ambivalence elicits dominance in interdependent decision making contexts. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116, 66–82.    
  • Action orientation and consumer regret (1 duo) People differ in how they cope with past failures. Some people get over them quickly, while other reflect on them for a long time. This difference is called action vs state orientation. Since the 1980’s the literature on action vs state orientation shows mainly harming effects of being state oriented (being worse at planning and making decisions, and being more prone to depression and regret). However, recent findings show that the reflection of state-oriented people can also result in more positive emotions after things go right (Van Putten, 2013). In this project we will focus on another potential benefit of being state oriented, namely regret proneness. Regret is a motivating emotion, leading to intentions to undo the regretted mistake. If state oriented people indeed feel more regret, this leads to the counterintuitive prediction that state oriented people will be more active after a regretful consumption experience than action oriented people. In this project we will investigate this prediction.
Getting a grip on your feelings: Effects of action orientation and external demands on intuitive affect regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 974-990 McElroy, T., & Dowd, K. (2007). Action orientation, consistency and feelings of regret. Judgment and Decision Making, 2, 333-341. How consumers deal with missed discounts: Transaction decoupling, action orientation and inaction inertia. Journal of Economic Psychology. Zeelenberg, M., Van Dijk, W. W., Manstead, A. S. R., & Van der Pligt, J. (1998). The experience of regret and disappointment. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 221-230.     E14 - Wolfgang Steinel (1 duo,ECP or S&O)
  • Suspicion and sense-making in ultimatum bargaining In economic decisions like bargaining, it is a common belief that high offers are more readily accepted than low offers. In the Ultimatum Bargaining Game, for example, allocators offer more value to recipients in order to tempt them to accept the proposal. Recently, boundary conditions of this general wisdom have been documented:  when bargaining opponents had private information over the total amount that was to be distributed, participants became suspicious about high offers (i.e., offers that were beneficial to themselves), but not about low or equal offers. Due to suspicion, participants rejected high offers more often than equal offers. Master thesis research will follow up on this finding, e.g. by examining the perceptions and  strategic behavior of allocators, gain a better understanding of the underlying processes by  studying the role of trust and suspicion, or by investigating the role of suspicion in inter-group encounters.
   

Laatst Gewijzigd: 16-01-2014